Feedback Reigns: Home

Climate Change:
Evidence, Dangers, Solutions and News

Evidence for Climate Change: 
The climate records show
how our climate has changed and is changing. For example sea level, which is the yardstick for global warming.  (See below)

Dangers of Climate Change:   Feedbacks are  Amplifying the Warming
The main danger is that the current global warming could start a vicious spiral in which, again and again,  warming would cause further warming.  (More on Amplifying Feedback ..)

********* Musical Protests against Inaction on Climate: June 2016
See “Warm is Not Cool” Stephen Taberner

Safe Climate News
To scan the news items,  click  here or on “News” in the above menu.   The 7 most recent items are:

Considering solar panels: Does it stack up financially?
Click here for an evaluation method and free spreadsheet

Solutions to Climate Change

Australia could stop its emissions of carbon dioxide within ten years.  The organisation “Beyond Zero Emissions” has developed detailed plans for this transition.

Australia and other countries need to act on these sorts of plans.  Australia could:

  • Generate all electricity from renewables. Renewables can generate electricity 24 hours a day.  For example, the Nevada solar plant shown below.  It collects and stores heat to generate electricity day and night.  Australia will not need coal, gas or nuclear power.  (More …)
Crescent Dunes Solar Thermal Power Station: Nevada USA
Crescent Dunes Solar Thermal Power Station: Nevada USA


  • Use renewable electricity to power a high-speed rail service on the east coast.  (More …)
  • Modify land use, forestry and agriculture to cut emissions. (More …)
  • Modify buildings to cut energy use. (More …)
Evdence for Climate Change: The key indicators:


The recent increase in the carbon dioxide in our air, compared with the levels over the last 400,000 years (NASA)
The recent increase in the carbon dioxide in our air, compared with the levels over the last 400,000 years (NASA)

The Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Air:  For 650 thousand years this concentration moved between 180 ppm and 300 ppm. Since 1950 it has soared to above 400 ppm and is increasing by about 2 ppm each year.  (More ..)




Global Temperatures 1880 - 2015 (NOAA)
Global Temperatures 1880 – 2015 (NOAA)

Average Global Temperature: Risen 0.67 C per century since 1880.  Hottest years on record: 2015 and 2014 (More ..)





Graph: The Average September Area of Arctic Ice (NSIDC)
Graph: The Average September Area of Arctic Ice (NSIDC)

Arctic Sea-ice: The average area of sea-ice each September has  declined by 13.7 percent per decade.  (More ..)




Antarctica Mass variation (NASA: Climate Indicators)
Antarctica Mass variation (NASA: Climate Indicators)

Antarctic Ice: Antarctica has lost 147,000 million tons of ice per year since 2003.   (More ..)






Greenland Mass Variation (NASA: Climate Indicators)
Greenland Mass Variation (NASA: Climate Indicators)

Greenland Ice: Greenland has lost 258,000 million tonnes of ice a year since 2003.   (More ..)






Graph: Sea Level Change since 1993 (NASA: Climate: Indicators)
Graph: Sea Level Change since 1993 (NASA: Climate: Indicators)

Sea Level:  Risen 3.16 mm a year since 1993 and now rising faster.

“Sea level rise is the yardstick for global warming” (NASA).

Some claim that global warming has paused – but there has been no pause in the rise of sea levels.   Sea levels suggest that warming continues apace.

(More ..)


The Acidity of our Oceans:  Acidity is rising as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases.  (More ..)

Conclusions of Climate Science

These key indicators are part of the evidence for concluding, beyond reasonable doubt, that:

  • Our planet is warming
  • Our climate is changing
  • Human emissions are the cause
  • The critical emission is carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels

Causes of Climate Change: US National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA

Scientists no longer debate whether human emissions are behind global warming.  (More ..)
The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change (Oreskes, 2007, page 9 of 36) from the website of the Department of Planetary Sciences: University of Arizona

The American Association for the Advancement of Science came as close as such a respectable institution can to screaming an alarm in March 2014.  “As scientists, it is not our role to tell people what they should do … but human-caused climate change [is threatening] abrupt, unpredictable and potentially irreversible changes.”  … The most distinguished scientists from the country with the world’s pre-eminent educational institutions were trying to shake humanity out of its complacency.
(Climate Change Deniers have Won: The Guardian: 22 March 2014)

 Misleading information

Powerful lobby groups are campaigning to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge.
(The Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming: Oreskes & Conway)

For example, Some people say that since 1998 while carbon dioxide levels have risen, the “average global temperature” has not been increasing, so carbon dioxide is not causing warming and there is no need for concern about the climate.

This is a misleading argument in several ways.  One response is in terms of the above range of climate indicators.  Even if the global temperatures were moving to calm concerns,  the other indicators of climate change also need to move to calm concerns.  And, as shown above, each of the indicators provides another reason to remain concerned.


Climate Restoration
The recent increase in the carbon dioxide in our air, compared with the levels over the last 400,000 years (NASA)
The recent increase in the carbon dioxide in our air, compared with the levels over the last 400,000 years (NASA)

For the 800,000 years before about 1950, carbon dioxide levels stayed between 180 and 300 ppm.  So we know the planet can keep a human-friendly climate while levels are in this range.  However, now levels are above 400 ppm.  While levels remain high the planet will continue to accumulate heat and we could well destroy our human-friendly climate.

The only solution that we can adopt with any confidence is to move our climate back to a state in which it has already demonstrated stability.  We need to restore the above indicators of climate change to their values in about 1940:

  • Cut carbon dioxide in the air from 400 ppm to below 300 ppm.  One way to do this is to cut emissions by slashing the burning of fossil fuels.  Another is to increase the drawdown of carbon dioxide from the air and storing it by expanding forests
  • Cool the planet by 0.6 C from the 2014 average global temperature
  • Restore the lost ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and Greenland,
  • Decrease ocean levels and ocean acidity

We need to act with wartime urgency.  This is to reduce the chances of the current warming tipping the climate into an irreversable warming spiral. (More …)

Science is clear about how to tackle climate change.  And, as identified above, we have detailed plans for moving to a zero emissions economy.

The Benefits of a Zero Emissions Economy
  • Reduce the impacts and risks of climate change
  • Health and environmental benefits of clean air
  • Jobs and knowledge in industries that can prosper long into the future.
Safe Climate News

Subscribe to our free Safe Climate News. (More …)

Searching this Site

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My Policy on Comments

I welcome constructive comments about this site.

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As quite a few comments are spam, I now only  publish comments that mention something about climate change.

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2 thoughts on “Feedback Reigns: Home”

  1. Thank you for this useful compilation of information – VERY useful to have on hand if one is having a debate with a denier of climate change
    Pat Phair

  2. About your news items: I always read through your summaries and open the links to articles that interest me. It is always a productive and interesting exercise. I appreciate that what you are doing is a demanding exercise which you do out of a sense of commitment, so I am hesitant to suggest anything that might involve you in more work, such as a consolidated reference compendium of your back copies. That would be the difference between a monthly information service and a reference collection. Whatever, what you are currently doing is much appreciated. Christopher N

    [Reply: The news items are now all on the web, so this news can now be searched and is becoming a reference collection]

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